FABP Antibodies

Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins approximately 14-15kDa that bind long chain fatty acids as well as bilirubin, organic anions and other small hydrophobic molecules.
 
Their primary role is to regulate fatty acid uptake and aid intracellular transport. (1) To date nine different fatty acid binding proteins have been identified and named either by the tissue of where they were first discovered or numerically by gene. (1-9)
 
The current family contains the following:
 
Common Name
Gene
Tissue Distribution
L-FABP
FABP-1
Liver
I-FABP
FABP-2
Intestine
H-FABP
FABP-3
Heart and Muslce
A-FABP
FABP-4
Adipocyte
E-FABP
FABP-5
Epidermis
IL-FABP
FABP-6
Ileal
B-FABP
FABP-7
Brain
M-FABP
FABP-8
Myelin
 
Fatty acid binding proteins are found in abundance in numerous cell types and due to their small size, can rapidly leak from cells after trauma. Elevated levels of fatty acid binding proteins are found in the serum after tissue damage. Fatty acid binding proteins can therefore be used as diagnostic markers in monitoring the extent of tissue damage. (7)
 
The main function and diagnostic potential of each of the nine different proteins is outlined below:
 
L-FABP (or FABP-1)
 
L-FABP is predominantly found in the liver and is thought to be involved in the regulation of lipid transport (2) and metabolism. At present ALT and Aspartate Aminotransferase are used to both detect the presence of liver disease and monitor its progression however more sensitive markers are required due to the lack of specificity of Aspartate Aminotransferase and the fact plasma levels of ALT increase too late (12). Research has shown L-FABP levels to rise significantly after cell damage; levels are also increased a lot earlier than ALT making it a promising new biomarker. (13)
 
Products available from Randox
 
Recombinant Proteins:
 
 
I-FABP (or FABP-2)
 
I-FABP is predominantly found in the intestine and is believed to be involved in the intestinal absorption of long chain fatty acids. (3). Normally only trace levels of intestinal fatty acid binding protein are present in the serum however levels appear to be increased in the serum of individuals suffering from ischemic bowel disease/mesenteric infarction making I-FABP a useful biomarker. (11)
 
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Recombinant Proteins:
 
 
H-FABP (or FABP-3)
 
H-FABP isfound mainly in the heart. The release of H-FABP into the plasma of cardiac patients is used as a diagnostic marker of cardiac damage. In approximately 80% of patients with established acute myocardial infarction the level of H-FABP in the plasma was at or above the threshold in samples taken within 3.5 hours after the onset of symptoms. (4) This compares favourably with some of the more established cardiac markers such as CKMB.
 
Products available from Randox
 
Recombinant Proteins:
 
 
Antibodies:
 
 
A-FABP (or FABP-4)
 
A- FABP is a fat cell specific protein that is considered to facilitate the bidirectional flux of fatty acids in response to insulin and epinephrine. (5)
 
Products available from Randox
 
Recombinant Proteins:
 
·         A-FABP (10ug) - RCP9333
·         A-FABP (100ug) - RCP9334
·         A-FABP (1mg) - RCP9335
·         A-FABP (Western Blot Control 10ug) - RCP9332
 
 
E-FABP (or FABP-5)
 
E-FABPis found mainly in the epidermal cells and is thought to work in conjunction with A-FABP to facilitate fatty acid efflux from adipocytes. (6)
 
Products available from Randox
 
Recombinant Proteins:
 
 
 
 
 
 
IL-FABP (or FABP-6)
 
IL-FABPis found mainly in the small intestine. At present the main function is not known although it is thought to be involved in fatty acid uptake, transport and metabolism. (7
 
Products available from Randox
 
Recombinant Proteins:
 
 
 
B-FABP (or FABP-7)
 
There is currently a lack of sensitive and specific biochemical markers available for the early detection of stroke. Many proteins however have proved effective in assessing the extent of brain damage but due to their delayed detection/appearance in the blood are not suitable in diagnosing stroke etc (10). B-FABP together with the heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is released into the serum after acute ischemic stroke and can be used as an early biochemical marker in the diagnosis of stroke.
 
Products available from Randox
 
Recombinant Proteins:
 
 
Antibodies
 
 
M-FABP (or FABP-8)
 
M-FABPis found mainly in the peripheral nerves and is thought to have a role in lipid transport (9).
 
Products available from Randox
 
Recombinant Proteins:
 
 
 
References
 
1. Chmurzynska A (2006) The multigene family of fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs): Function, structure and polymorphism A. J. Appl. Genet. 2006, 47(1): 39-48.
 
2. Entrez Gene: FABP1 fatty acid binding protein1, liver
 
3. Lieberman J M, Sacchettini J, Marks C, Marks W (1997) Human intestinal fatty acid binding protein: Report of an assay with studies in normal volunteers and intestinal ischemia. Surgery 121(3): 335-342.
 
4. Lescuyer P et al (2005)Heart-fatty acid-binding protein as a marker for early detection of acute myocardial infarction and stroke Mol Diagn 9(1): 1-7
 
5. Zimmerman A W, Veerkamp JH (2002) New insights into the structure and function of fatty acid-binding proteins. Cell Mol Life Sci, 59(7): 1096-1116
 
6. Siegenthaler G et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003, 190(2): 482–7
 
7. Kurz M, Brachvogel V, Matter H, Stengelin S, Thüringen H, Kramer W (2003) Insights into the bile acid transportation system: The human ileal lipid-binding protein-cholyltaurine complex and its comparison with homologous structures. Proteins 50(2): 312-328.
 
8. Wunderlich M T, Hanhoff T, Goertler M, Spener F, Glatz J, Wallesch C Pelsers M (2005) Release of brain–type and heart–type fatty acid–binding proteins in serum after acute ischaemic stroke. J Neurol. 252 (6): 718-724.
 
9. Narayana V et al. J. Neurochem. 2004, 63: 2010-2013.
 
10. Zimmermann-Ivol C G, Burckhardt P R, Le Floch-Rohr J, Allard l, Hochstrasser D F, Sanchez J (2004) Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Serum Marker for the Early Diagnosis of Stroke. Molecular and Cellular Proteomics 3 (1): 66-72
 
11. Kanda T, Fujii H, Tani T, Murakami H, Suda T, Sakai Y, Ono T, Hatakeyama K (1996) Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein is a useful diagnostic marker for mesenteric infarction in humansGastroenterology 110 (2): 339-343
 
12. Trull A K (2001) The clinical validation of novel strategies for monitoring transplant recipients. Clinical Biochemistry 34 (1): 3-7
 
13. Pelsers MMAL, Hermen WT, Glatz JFC (2005) Fatty Acid Binding Proteins as plasma markers of tissue injury. Clinica Chimica Acta 352: 15-35